Oxidative stress reflects the imbalance between the systemic performance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ability of biological systems to easily detoxify active intermediates or repair the resulting damage. Obviously, oxidative stress is considered to be related to the development of ADHD, cancer, Parkinson’s disease, Lafora disease, Alzheimer’s disease, atherosclerosis and heart failure. Multiple reactive oxygen species/nitrogen species induce oxidative stress. Particularly, free radical scavenging is one of the important functions of antioxidants. Free radical scavengers can protect cells and tissues from free radicals, so as to prevent cancer and other diseases.
Importantly, Vitamin E is the most abundant and important lipophilic free radical scavenging antioxidant in the body. Vitamin E is only effective in scavenging peroxy free radicals in the body. Interestingly, Vitamin E inhibits lipid peroxidation by destroying chain transmission in vitro and in vivo. Vitamin E can protect polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the membrane from oxidation. Additionally, it regulates the production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen (RNs), and regulates signal transduction. Now, we will introduce an analog of vitamin E with a powerful antioxidant effect, Trolox.
Trolox, an Analogue of Vitamin E, Possesses Antioxidant Effect.
First of all, Trolox is also a powerful inhibitor of membrane damage. Specifically, Trolox has protected mammalian cells from oxidative damage. Besides, Trolox is effective in preventing myocyte necrosis in cell culture studies.
In the second place, Trolox could prevent oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in thymocytes. Pre- or post-treatment of cells with Trolox reduced H2O2-induced DNA fragmentation to control levels and below. Moreover, Trolox has scavenge peroxyl radicals better than vitamin E in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles and in liposomes. Furthermore, Trolox prolongs substantially the survival of human ventricular myocytes and hepatocyte against oxyradicals generated with xanthine oxidase plus hypoxanthine. Meanwhile, Trolox prevented lysis of red cells exposed to an azo-initiator
All in all, Trolox is an analogue of vitamin E with a powerful antioxidant effect.