Month: September 2021

Sorafenib (Bay 43-9006) is an Orally Active Raf Inhibitor

The Raf family consists of three members: A-Raf, B-Raf, and Raf-1. Ras/RAF/MEK extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is relevant to the control of many basic cellular processes, including proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Specifically, Raf-1 and B-Raf can form heterodimers, which may be important for cell transformation. RAF protein is...

Cabozantinib is a potent Multiple Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs) Inhibitor

Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are high-affinity cell surface receptors for many polypeptide growth factors, cytokines, and hormones. Specifically, RTKs are part of a larger family of protein tyrosine kinases. RTKs are key regulators of normal cellular processes. Besides, it plays a key role in the development and progression of...

SN-38 (NK012) is an Active Metabolite of the Topoisomerase I Inhibitor Irinotecan

DNA topoisomerase I (Top1) is a DNA unwinding protein and the specific target of the camptothecin class of chemotherapeutic drugs. Top1 binds supercoiled DNA, nicks a DNA strand allowing its rotation around the intact strand, and then relegates the DNA. Camptothecins bind and stabilize the Top1-DNA cleavage complexes, thus...

Ruxolitinib (INCB018424) is an Orally Active JAK1 and JAK2 Inhibitor

The myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are a group of related clonal diseases probably arising from hematopoietic progenitor or stem cells. Patients with MPNs have an increased risk of thrombotic and bleeding complications and disease progression to acute myeloid leukemia. JAK2 is a member of the JAK family of cytoplasmic tyrosine...

Iberdomide (CC-220) is an Orally Active Cereblon (CRBN) E3 Ligase Modulator (CELMoD)

Cereblon (CRBN) is a key protein in autosomal recessive nonsyndromic mental retardation. Specifically, it plays an intermediary role in helping immunomodulatory drugs play their immunomodulatory and tumor-killing roles. Besides, CRBN is highly conserved from plants to mammals, and mRNA expression in humans, rats, and mice is common. CRBN interacts...