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Gardiquimod is a TLR7/8 Agonist and Could Inhibit HIV-1 Infection

Toll-like receptors (TLR) are a family of highly conserved pattern recognition receptors. They participate in innate immune responses to pathogen infection. Some of the more than two dozen members of this class of receptors that include TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 are localized within intracellular vesicles including the endoplasmic...

Namodenoson (CF-102) is a Selective A3 Adenosine Receptor (A3AR) Agonist

The adenosine A3 receptor (A3AR) comes from the cloning from rat, sheep and human sources. In vitro stimulation of this adenosine receptor subtype shows it inhibits adenylyl cyclase. It also stimulates phospholipase C and inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) will form. In vivo activation of the A3 receptor, it also mediates heart...

Splitomicin is a cell-permeable, potent SIR2 Inhibitor

The class III histone deacetylases (HDAC) are also known as the sirtuins. They are a member of the sirtuin family of proteins (SIRT1~7) and homologs of Sir2 (Sir2p) in yeast. SIRT1 shares a domain of about 275 amino acids with other sirtuins. It uses NAD+ to mediate the deacetylation...